New Face Bulk-fill Composites for Posterior Tooth RestorationIn today's dentistry, composite resin material has been used extensively to restore the tooth, albeit with many disadvantages such as: shrinkage, micro leakage, and trigger secondary caries.1
In recent years, it has been recommended that composite application techniques be incremental (multi-layer) to overcome the weaknesses of composite materials. It is hoped that there will be good penetration of light-curing light, thereby reducing the possibility of depreciation pressure.1 However, as studies show that the technique allows for air bubbles and the absence of adhesion between layers of composites, and takes a long time in workmanship.1
To solve this problem, some material manufacturers introduced bulk-fill composite resins. So far, bulk-fill technique is not so recommended for posterior tooth restorations because there is a possibility that the material is not fully polymerized. However, recent breakthroughs modify filler resin particles with new chemical monomers that have increased translusions, and an optimum degree of conversion even up to the bottom of the cavity, as well as high viscosity to overcome the depreciation pressure of composite resin materials.2
It has been shown in a study that there are several factors affecting the mechanical properties of the resin composite ie chemical composition, the amount of radiation emitted, the distance from the tip of the light source, and the photo-activation mode.3 Recent developments in nanotechnology have led to the optimal filler content in the resin composites, with the addition of nano-shaped nanoparticles to significantly improve its mechanical properties. In addition, this material can be irradiated to a maximum thickness of 4-6 mm with minimal shrinkage due to high transparency, thus shortening maintenance time.2
Research Monterubbianesi, et al. which tested some of the latest bulk-fill composite materials compared to conventional composite resin materials showed a better average conversion rate and hardness of bulk-fill composite materials.
Jang, et al. also proves in his research that the polymerization depreciation and cure depth of bulk-fill composite material can almost match the composite flowable resin with a very high filler though.2
The new face of the bulk-fill composite has now become the recommended ingredient of its use, in addition to being accepted aesthetically as well in terms of the enabling forces for posterior teeth.